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heart valve disease

Mitral valve disease

The mitral valve separates the left ventricle from the left atrium. It acts like all valves in the heart-- as a one way valve. This allows the blood to flow forward when the heart contracts and prevents leaking back into the left atrium as the heart relaxes between each contraction. The valve is composed of two leaflets which look, with the eye of faith, like the mitre the Pope wears-- hence the mitral valve.
The valve can become leaky (mitral regurgitation or MR) and this can cause the blood to leak into the left atrium.

Aortic valve disease

The heart normally has four valves in it. They all act as one way valves--opening fully allowing the heart to push blood forward when the heart contracts and -- closing completely stopping the blood from leaking backwards when the heart relaxes.
 
The Aortic valve
This valve separates the left ventricle (the main pump chamber of the heart) from the aorta (the main blood vessel-- supplying blood to the rest of the body).
 
The aortic valve can become narrowed (aortic stenosis). This restricts the blood flow out of the heart.