The field of cardiology is changing rapidly. The treatment of heart valve problems may involved open heart surgery in some patients, where the chest is opened via a wound at the front.
There is pioneering work that has allowed the procedure to be performed via a much smaller incision, so called minimally invasive surgery. This reduces the recovery time after surgery and reduces the amount of discomfort for patients.
One the leading surgeons in this field is Mr Inderpaul Birdi.